Jewels and gold, as one of nature's gifts, have thousands of years of history from ancient times to today. From ancient civilizations to modern developments, gold and jewelry have played an important role in human cultures, economies, and arts. In this article, the history of jewelry and gold, recognition and classification of gold, numismatics, weights, and percentages of gold, special decoration of gold, and also molten gold are discussed.

Part I: History of jewelry and gold

Ancient: They have long been known as one of the most important precious and beautiful metals. The first discoveries of gold go back to ancient periods and old civilizations such as ancient Egyptian, Sumerian, Babylonian, and Achaemenid civilizations. During this period, gold was used as a symbol of power, wealth, and divinity and was used as jewelry, ornaments, and weapons for personal use.

Middle period: In the middle period, Egypt and Mesopotamia were the most important sources of gold. Also, the civilizations of India and China were leaders in the use of gold and jewelry. Artists use gold to create valuable jewelry and use them as social, religious, and cultural symbols.

Renaissance period and after In the Renaissance period and with the Age of Immortality, artists and designers of works of art invented and used beautiful jewelry. This period was a turning point in the history of gold and jewelry and led to the development of jewelry design and manufacturing. Also, gold tables in America and the use of gold as a global silver currency also happened in this period.

Modern period: In the modern period, with the advancements in science and technology, methods were invented to extract and process gold. The international trade of gold also expanded greatly during this period due to its economic value. Jewelry and gold are considered as one of important economic factors in countries, and the jewelry industry has a more prominent level.

The second part: recognition and classification of gold

Knowledge of gold: Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. This metal has unique properties such as resistance to acidity and rust, which is used as a material for making jewelry and ornaments. Gold can be obtained through mining or recycling methods.

Classification of gold: Gold is divided into two main categories based on its purity and grade:

Pure gold: Pure gold is gold in which no other metals are found, and its carat is declared as a number or caratage (which expresses the carat number multiplied by 24).
Alloyed golds: Most of the golds used in jewelry are alloyed, in the sense that due to the properties of certain golds, some other elements are added to improve the look. Some common gold alloys include gold with silver, gold with nickel, and gold with copper.
The third part: numismatics of gold weights and percentages

Numismatics: Numismatics is the science of studying signs and symbols on coins or gold coins. This science examines the history, design, weights, and type of use of coins and can provide important information about the history and different cultures.

Weights and percentages of gold wages: Weights and percentages of gold wages for different plans and products may be different. Common gold coin weights include 1/20 ounce, 1/10 ounce, 1/4 ounce, 1/2 ounce, and 1 ounce. The reward percentage also refers to the amount of gold plus some alloy used in the coins. The usual price for gold coins is 22 karat or 91.67% gold.

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